Russian Meddling in the 2016 US Elections

Compiled by
John E. Savage
Brown University
Providence, RI

News Articles

  1. The Agency by Adrienne Chen, The New York Times, June 2, 2015
    At the Internet Research Agency the Russians have an army of well-paid "trolls" in place whose purpose is wreak havoc on the Internet.
  2. Why Russia's Showdown with the West Will Worsen, by Vitaliy Katsenelson, November 26, 2015
  3. Clinton campaign - and some cyber experts - say Russia is behind email release, by Tom Hamburger and Ellen Kakashima, The Washington Post, July 7, 2014
  4. Russian PM Medvedev equates relations with West to a 'new Cold War' by Ray Sanchez, Nic Robertson and Don Melvin, CNN, February 15, 2016
  5. Is Moscow Trying to Influence U.S. Election?, by Paul McLeary with Adam Rawnslef and Elias Groll, Foreign Policy, July 25, 2016
  6. What Does the US Government Know About Russia and the DNC Hack? Susan Hennessey, Lawfare Institute, July 25, 2016
  7. Spy Agency Consensus Grows That Russia Hacked D.N.C. by David E. Sanger and Eric Schmitt, July 26, 2016
  8. After DNC leaks, Obama hints at possible motive for Russia to help Trump, by Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, July 26, 2016
  9. D.N.C. Hack Raises a Frightening Question: What's Next? by Amanda Taub, The New York Times, July 29, 2016
  10. Russian hackers targeted Arizona election system by Ellen Nakashima, The Washington Post, August 29, 2016 Russian television shows what the Kremlin thinks of Clinton by Associated Press, July 31, 2016
  11. U.S. investigating potential covert Russian plan to disrupt November elections by Dana Priest, Ellen Nakashima and Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, September 5, 2016
  12. Russia previously tried to influence US elections,says spy chief by John Ribeiro, IDG News Service, September 21, 2016
  13. U.S. government officially accuses Russia of hacking campaign to interfere with elections, by Ellen Nakashima, The Washington Post, October 7, 2016
  14. Seven Reasons the New Russian Hack Announcement Is a Big Deal: It might turn out to be bigger than the Trump tape, by Julia Ioffe, Politico, October 08, 2016
  15. State Dept. Official Urges 'Strong' U.S. Response to Election Hacking By Russia, by John Hudson, Foreign Policy, October 13, 2016
  16. Theft of Trump files raises eyebrows, by Katie Bo Williams, The Hill, October 14, 2016
  17. The Russian Expat Leading the Fight to Protect America: In a War Against Hackers, Dmitri Alperovitch and Crowdstrike are Our Special Forces (and Putin's Worst Nightmare) by Vicky Ward, Esquire, October 24, 2016
  18. U.S. officials warn of Russian mischief in election and beyond, by Greg Miller and Adam Entous, The Washington Post, November 3, 2016
  19. Trolling for Trump: How Russia is Trying to Destroy Our Democracy by Andrew Weisburd, Clint Watts and Jm Berger, War on the Rocks, November 6, 2016
    This article, which was published before the election, explains how the Russian government used active measures to "to sow distrust in the American system of government."
  20. Russian 'Dukes' of Hackers Pounce on Trump Win, by Brian Krebs, November 16, 2016
  21. Americans keep looking away from the election's most alarming story, by Eric Chenoweth, The Washington Post, November 25, 2016
  22. After a Cyberattack, Germany Fears Election Disruption, by Melissa Eddy, The New York Times, December 8, 2016
  23. McCaskill calls Russian meddling in elections 'a form of warfare', by Mallory Shelbourne, The Hill, December 11, 2016
  24. The Perfect Weapon: How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S., by Eric Lipton, David E. Sanger and Scott Shane, The New York Times, December 13, 2016
  25. Russia's Hacks Followed Years of Paranoia Toward Hillary Clinton, by Max Fisher, The New York Times, December 16, 2016
  26. Obama Confronts Complexity of Using a Mighty Cyberarsenal Against Russia, by David E. Sanger, The New York Times, December 17, 2016
  27. Russia's Hybrid War Against the West by Guy Verhofstadt, Project Syndicate, December 23, 2016
  28. Obama Strikes Back at Russia for Election Hacking, by David E. Sanger, The New York Times, December 29, 2016
  29. Trump Gets an Opening from Russia, but the Path Is Risky, by David E. Sanger, Eric Schmitt and Michael R. Gordon, The New York Times, December 30, 2016
  30. U.S. intercepts capture senior Russian officials celebrating Trump win, by Adam Entous and Greg Miller, The Washington Post, January 5, 2017
  31. These Reports Allege Trump Has Deep Ties To Russia: A dossier, compiled by a person who has claimed to be a former British intelligence official, alleges Russia has compromising information on Trump. The allegations are unverified, and the report contains errors by Ken Bensinger, Miriam Elder, Mark Schoofs, BuzzFeed, January 10, 2017
  32. Why did Obama dawdle on Russia's hacking? by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, January 12, 2017
  33. Russians Charged With Treason Worked in Office Linked to Election Hacking, by Scott Shane, David E. Sanger and Andrew E. Kramer, The New York Times, January 27, 2017
  34. Russian Cyber Operations 2017, Harvard Kennedy School, February 1, 2017
  35. Senate subpanel launches new Russia hacking probe, by Martin Matishak, Politico, February 2, 2017
  36. Russian Arrests Spur Questions Over Links to U.S. Hacking: Russian news media have connected the arrests of two intelligence officials and a cybersecurity expert to a treason case, by Nathan Hodge, Olga Razumovskaya, and Shane Harris, Wall Street Journal, February 5, 2017
  37. Senators hone in on Russia's cyber capabilities, by Sean D. Carberry, FCW, February 9, 2017
  38. Fake News, Fake Ukrainians: How a Group of Russians Tilted a Dutch Vote, by Andrew Higgins, The New York Times, Februarty 16, 2017
  39. Vladimir Putin's Political Meddling Revives Old KGB Tactics, by Andrew Weiss, Wall Street Journal, February 17, 2017
  40. A Back-Channel Plan for Ukraine and Russia, Courtesy of Trump Associates, by Megan Twohey and Scott Shane, The New York Times, February 19, 2017
  41. Contradicting Trump on Russia: Russian Officials, by Matthew Rosenberg, New York Times, February 20, 2017
  42. Trump lawyer pushed pro-Russia deal for Ukraine, politician claims, by Nick Paton Walsh, Salma Abdelaziz and Victoria Butenko, CNN, February 23, 2017
  43. Russia's assault on America's elections is just one example of a global threat, by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, February 23, 2017
  44. NSA Head: Russian Interference in U.S. Election, 'Hey This Happened', by Sam LaGrone, USNI News, February 23, 2017
  45. Trump administration sought to enlist intelligence officials, key lawmakers to counter Russia stories, by Greg Miller and Adam Entous, The Washington Post, February 24, 2017
  46. New Commerce Secretary at nexus of lucrative Trump Russian deal, MSNBC, February 27, 2017
  47. White House accused of blocking information on bank's Trump-Russia links, by Stephanie Kirchgaessner, The Guardian, February 23, 2017
  48. House Bill Aims for 'Race to the Top' in Election Security by Joseph Marks, NextGov, March 7, 2017
  49. Trump Adviser Had Twitter Contact With Figure Tied to Russians by Matthew Rosenberg and Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, March 11, 2017
  50. Yahoo Hacking Charges Cast New Light on Ties Between Russian Intelligence, Cybercriminals by Nathan Hodge, Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2017
  51. FBI's Russian-influence probe includes a look at Brietbart, InfoWars news site by Peter Stone and Greg Gordon, McClatchey, March 20, 2017 (See here for original website.)
  52. Russia's radical new strategy for information warfare by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, January 18, 2017.
    In this article Ignatius reports that in February 2016 Andrey Krutskikh said that "Russia was working on new strategies for the 'information arena' that would be equivalent to testing a nuclear bomb and would 'allow us to talk to Americans as equals.' " At the time Krutskikh was the "special representative of the president for the Russian Federation for international cooperation in the field of information security."
  53. The New Handbook For Cyberwar Is Being Written By Russia by Sheera Frankel, BuzzFeed News, March 19, 2017
  54. AP Exclusive: Manafort had plan to benefit Putin government by Jeff Horwitz and Chad Day, AP, March 22, 2017
  55. Top Russian Officials Discussed How to Influence Trump Aides Last Summer by Matthew Rosenberg, Adam Goldman and Matt Apuzzo, The New York Times, March 24, 2017
  56. U.S. needs to stop Russian electoral interference, NSA's top civilian leader says by Ellen Nakashima, The Washington Post, March 25, 2017
  57. Senate Committee to Question Jared Kushner Over Meetings With Russians by Jo Becker, Matthew Rosenberg and Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, March 27, 2017
  58. Trump's business network reached alleged Russian mobsters by Oren Dorell, USA TODAY, March 28, 2017
  59. Cheney delivers a statement on Russian meddling: It's an 'act of war' by Kristine Phillips, The New York Times, March 28, 2017
  60. Russian Intelligence Cyber Actors Target US Companies to Obtain Information on Voting Machine Hardware and Software, Declassified Report, National Security Agency, April 2017.
  61. Michael Flynn Failed to Disclose Payments From Russian Propaganda Network by Lachlan Markay, The Daily Beast, April 1, 2017
  62. A Former Trump Adviser Met With A Russian Spy by Ali Watkins, BuzzFeed News, April 3, 2017
  63. Blackwater founder held secret Seychelles meeting to establish Trump-Putin back channel by Adam Entous, Greg Miller, Kevin Sieff and Karen DeYoung, The Washington Post, April 3, 2017
  64. C.I.A. Had Evidence of Russian Effort to Help Trump Earlier Than Believed by Eric Lichtblau, The New York Times, April 6, 2017
  65. Kushner Omitted Meeting With Russians on Security Clearance Forms by Jo Becker and Matthew Rosenberg, The New York Times, April 6, 2017
  66. Russian Spies Tried to Recruit Carter Page Before He Advised Trump by Adam Goldman, The New York Times, April 4, 2017
  67. FBI obtained FISA warrant to monitor Trump adviser Carter Page By Ellen Nakashima, Devlin Barrett and Adam Entous, The Washington Post, April 11, 2017
  68. After Campaign Exit, Manafort Borrowed From Businesses With Trump Ties by Mike McIntire, The New York Times, April 12, 2017
  69. Court Approved Wiretap on Trump Campaign Aide Over Russia Ties by Matthew Rosenberg and Matt Apuzzo, The New York Times, April 12, 2017
  70. British spies were first to spot Trump team's links with Russia by Luke Harding, Stephanie Kirchgaessner and Nick Hopkins, Guardian, April 13, 2017
  71. Trump boasts of hiring only the best, but picks haunt him by Julie Pace, Associated Press, April 13, 2017
  72. Trump Adviser's Visit to Moscow Got the F.B.I.'s Attention by Scott Shane, Mark Mazzetti and Adam Goldman, The New York Times, April 19, 2017
  73. Exclusive: Putin-linked think tank drew up plan to sway 2016 U.S. election - documents, by Ned Parker, Jonathan Landay and John Walcott, Reuters, April 20, 2017
  74. A scholar asks, 'Can democracy survive the Internet?' by Dan Balz, The Washington Post, April 22, 2017
  75. Senate Trump-Russia Probe Has No Full‐Time Staff, No Key Witnesses by Tim Mak, The Daily Beast, April 23, 2017
  76. Russia's Digital War on the West Is Just Getting Started by Uri Friedman, DefenseOne, April 26, 2017
  77. Michael Flynn's fall tells a much bigger story by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, April 27, 2017
  78. The mystery behind a Flynn associate's quiet work for the Trump campaign by Matea Gold, The Washington Post, May 4, 2017
  79. Flynn was warned by Trump transition officials about contacts with Russian ambassador by Greg Miller and Adam Entous, The Washington Post, May 5, 2017
  80. Trump fires Comey as FBI director; Democrats call for a special prosecutor in Russia investigation by David Lauter and Michael A. Memoli, The Washington Post, May 9, 2017
  81. Comey's removal sparks fears about future of Russia probe by Ellen Nakashima and Matt Zapotosky, The Washington Post, May 9, 2017
  82. The Comey debacle only magnifies the Russia mystery by David Ignatius, The Washington Post,May 9, 2017
  83. Furor over Comey firing grows with news that he sought resources for Russia investigation before his dismissal by Elise Viebeck, Ed O'Keefe, Sean Sullivan and Paul Kane, The Washington Post, May 10, 2017
  84. Behind Comey's firing: An enraged Trump, fuming about Russia by Josh Dawsey, Politico, May 10, 2017
  85. Russian State-Run Bank Financed Deal Involving Trump Hotel Partner by Rob Barry, Christopher S. Stewart and Brett Forrest, The Wall Street Journal, May 17, 2017
  86. Trump campaign had at least 18 undisclosed contacts with Russians by Ned Parker, Jonathan Landay and Warren Strobel, Reuters, May 18, 2017
  87. US spies heard Russian intelligence agent vowing to target Clinton: report by Mark Hensch, The Hill, May 18, 2017
  88. Russian officials bragged they could use Flynn to influence Trump, sources say by Gloria Borger, Pamela Brown, Jim Sciutto, Marshall Cohen and Eric Lichtblau, CNN, May 19, 2017
  89. Jared Kushner trying to secretly talk to the Russians is the biggest billow of smoke yet by Amber Phillips, The Washington Post, May 26, 2017
  90. How a dubious Russian document influenced the FBI's handling of the Clinton probe by Karoun Demirjian and Devlin Barrett, The Washington Post, May 24, 2017
  91. Former Trump campaign chairman submits Russiarelated documents to intelligence panels By Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, May 24, 2017
  92. Sessions didn't disclose meetings with Russian officials on security clearance form by Sari Horwitz, The Washington Post, Marcy 24, 2017
  93. Russian ambassador told Moscow that Kushner wanted secret communications channel with Kremlin by Ellen Nakashima, Adam Entous and Greg Miller, The Washington Post, May 26, 2017
  94. How Alleged Russian Hacker Teamed Up With Florida GOP Operative Political consultant Aaron Nevins received documents from hacker 'Guccifer 2.0' and posted some on his blog by Alexandra Berzon and Rob Barry, The Wall Street Journal, May 25, 2017
  95. Jared Kushner trying to secretly talk to the Russians is the biggest billow of smoke yet by Amber Phillips, The Washington Post, May 26, 2017
  96. Investigation Turns to Kushner's Motives in Meeting With a Putin Ally by Matthew Rosenberg, Mark Mazzetti and Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, May 29, 2017
  97. Russians discussed potentially 'derogatory' information about Trump and associates during campaign by Pamela Brown, Jim Sciutto and Dana Bash, CNN, May 30, 2017
  98. Maybe Private Russian Hackers Meddled in Election, Putin Says by Andrew Higgins, The New York Times, June 1, 2017
    In this article Putin hints that Russians may have meddled in the US 2016 elections.
  99. Putin Nods to Prospect That 'Patriotic' Russian Hackers Launched Cyberattacks by Nathan Hodge, The Wall Street Journal, June 1, 2017
  100. What does Russia think about all this? 'Washington has gone crazy.' by David Ignatius, The Washington Poast, June 1, 2017
  101. Explanations for Kushner's meeting with head of Kremlin-linked bank don't match up by David Filipov, Amy Brittain, Rosalind S. Helderman and Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, June 1, 2017
  102. Putin calls U.S. election-meddling charge a 'load of nonsense' in Megyn Kelly interview by David A. Fahrenthold, The Washington Post, June 4, 2017
  103. Bank at Center of U.S. Inquiry Projects Russian 'Soft Power' by Ben Protess, Andrew E. Kramer and Mike McIntire, The New York Times, June 4, 2017
  104. Top-Secret NSA Report Details Russian Hacking Effort Days Before 2016 Election by Matthew Cole, Richard Esposito, Sam Biddle, Ryan Grim, The Intercept, June 5 2017
  105. Housing developer builds resilience with DRaaS: Lightning strike puts disaster recovery plan to the test by Ann Bednarz, Network World, July 5, 2017
  106. Putin's campaign of personal revenge against the United States by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, June 6, 2017
  107. Trump-Comey Feud Eclipses a Warning on Russia: 'They Will Be Back' by Peter Baker and David E. Sanger, The New York Times, June 10, 2017
  108. Mike Flynn's Pro-Turkey Work: An Unfinished Documentary to Boost Country's Image by Dion Nissenbaum, The Wall Street Journal, May 30, 2017
  109. Russian Cyber Hacks on U.S. Electoral System Far Wider Than Previously Known by Michael Riley and Jordan Robertson, Bloomberg, June 13, 2017
  110. Trump Stews, Staff Steps In, and Mueller Is Safe for Now by Glenn Thrush, Maggie Haberman and Julie Hirschfeld Davis, The New York Times, June 13, 2017
  111. How Michael Flynn's Disdain for Limits Led to a Legal Quagmire by Nicholas Confessore, Matthew Rosenberg and Danny Hakim, The New York Times, June 18, 2017
  112. F.B.I. Investigating Deals Involving Paul Manafort and Son-in-Law by Mike Mcintire, The New York Times, June 23, 2017
  113. Obama's secret struggle to punish Russia for Putin's election assault by Greg Miller, Ellen Nakashima and Adam Entous, The Washington Post, June 23, 2017.
    See the following commentary on this news article.
  114. FBI has questioned Trump campaign adviser Carter Page at length in Russia probe by Devlin Barrett, The Washington Post, June 26, 2017
  115. GOP Operative Sought Clinton Emails From Hackers, Implied a Connection to Flynn by Shane Harris, The Wall Street Journal, June 29, 2017
  116. The Time I Got Recruited to Collude with the Russians by Matt Tait, Lawfare, June 30, 2017
  117. How U.S. presidents missed the Russia threat -- until it was much, much too late by Anne Applebaum, The Washington Post, June 30, 2017
  118. GOP Activist Who Sought Clinton Emails Cited Trump Campaign Officials by Shane Harris, Michael C. Bender and Peter Nicholas, The Wall Street Journal, July 1, 2017
  119. Trump Foot Soldier Sidelined Under Glare of Russia Inquiry by Michael Schwirtz, William K. Rashbaum and Danny Hakim, The New York Times, July 2, 2017
  120. Former NATO Commander: Alliance Needs to Take Cyber Fight to Russia's Door by Patrick Tucker, Defense One, July 6, 2017
  121. Trump Team Met With Lawyer Linked to Kremlin During Campaign by Jo Becker, Matt Apuzzo and Adam Goldman, The New York Times, July 8, 2017
  122. Trump's Son Met With Russian Lawyer After Being Promised Damaging Information on Clinton By Jo Becker, Matt Apuzzo and Adam Goldman, The New York Times, July 9, 2017
  123. Trump Jr. Was Told in Email of Russian Effort to Aid Campaign by Matt Apuzzo, Jo Becker, Adam Goldman and Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, July 10, 2017
  124. Russian Dirt on Clinton? 'I Love It,' Donald Trump Jr. Said by Jo Becker, Adam Goldman and Matt Apuzzo, The New York Times, July 11, 2017
  125. Trump-Russia investigators probe Jared Kushner-run digital operation by Peter Stone and Greg Gordon, McClatchy Washington Bureau, July 12, 2017
  126. Russian Officials Overheard Discussing Trump Associates Before Campaign Began by Shane Harris, The Wall Street Journal, July 12, 2017
  127. Sources: Trump lawyers knew of Russia emails back in June by Michael Isikoff, Yahoo! News, July 13, 2017
  128. Former Soviet Counterintelligence Officer at Meeting With Donald Trump Jr. and Russian Lawyer by Ken Dilanian, Natasha Lebedeva and Hallie Jackson, NBC News, July 14, 2017
  129. Russian American lobbyist was present at Trump Jr.'s meeting with Kremlin-connected lawyer by Tom Hamburger and Rosalind S. Helderman, The Washington Post, July 14, 2017
  130. Russian-American lobbyist joined Trump's son's meeting, too by Desmond Butler and Chad Day, Associated Press, July 14, 2017
    In this article the lobbyist, Akhmetshin, said that the Russian lawyer Veselnitskaya brought with her a plastic folder with printed-out documents that detailed what she believed was the flow of illicit funds to the Democrats.
  131. The Master of 'Kompromat' Believed to Be Behind Trump Jr.'s Meeting by Andrew E. Kramer, The New York Times, July 17, 2017
  132. Eighth person in Trump Tower meeting is identified by Rosalind S. Helderman and Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, July 18, 2017
  133. Big German Bank, Key to Trump's Finances, Faces New Scrutiny by Ben Protess, Jessica Silver-Greenberg and Jesse Drucker, The New York Times, July 19, 2017
  134. Mueller Expands Probe to Trump Business Transactions by Greg Farrell Christian Berthelsen, Bloomberg, July 20, 2017
  135. Kushner updates financial disclosure after omitting dozens of assets by Brandon Carter, The Hill, July 7, 2017
  136. Lawyer who met with Trump Jr. had Russian intelligence connections by Andrew Roth, The Washington Post, July 21, 2017
  137. Sessions discussed Trump campaign-related matters with Russian ambassador, U.S. intelligence intercepts show by Adam Entous, Ellen Nakashima and Greg Miller, The Washington Post, July 21, 2017
  138. The Russians Were Involved. But It Wasn't About Collusion by Daniel Hoffman, The New Yrok Times, July 28, 2017
  139. Trump dictated son's misleading statement on meeting with Russian lawyer by Ashley Parker, Carol D. Leonnig, Philip Rucker and Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, July 31, 2017
  140. A timeline of the explosive lawsuit alleging a White House link in the Seth Rich conspiracy by Philip Bump, The Washington Post, August 1, 2017
  141. Trump aides' stunning cry for help: Admitting the president misled the American people by Aaron Blake, The Washington Post, August 1, 2017
  142. U.S. Attorney Subpoenas Kushner Cos. Over Investment-For-Visa Program by Erica Orden, Aruna Viswanatha and Byron Tau, The Washington Post, August 2, 2017
  143. Trump campaign emails show aide's repeated efforts to set up Russia meetings by Tom Hamburger, Carol D. Leonnig and Rosalind S. Helderman, The Washington Post, August 14, 2017
  144. In Ukraine, a Malware Expert Who Could Blow the Whistle on Russian Hacking by Andrew E. Kramer and Andrew Higgins, The New York Times, August 16, 2017
  145. Lobbyist at Trump Campaign Meeting Has a Web of Russian Connections by Sharon LaFraniere, David D. Kirkpatrick and Kenneth P. Vogel, The New York Times, August 21, 2017
  146. Glenn Simpson, key figure behind million-dollar 'dossier,' to face questions by Brian Ross, Matthew Mosk, and Rhonda Schwartz, ABC News, August 22, 2017
  147. Exclusive: Top Trump aide's email draws new scrutiny in Russia inquiry by Manu Raju and Marshall Cohen, CNN, August 24, 2017
  148. Russians Arrested on Treason Charges Helped U.S. Catch Hacker, Report Says by Andrew E. Kramer, The New York Times, August 25, 2017
  149. Special Counsel Examines Possible Role Flynn Played in Seeking Clinton Emails From Hackers by Shane Harris, The Wall Street Journal, August 25, 2017
  150. Putin saw the Panama Papers as a personal attack and may have wanted revenge, Russian authors say, by Adam Taylor, The Washington Post, August 28, 2017
  151. Top Trump Organization executive asked Putin aide for help on business deal by Rosalind S. Helderman, Carol D. Leonnig and Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, August 28, 2017
  152. Mueller Has Early Draft of Trump Letter Giving Reasons for Firing Comey by Michael S. Schmidt and Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, September 1, 2017
  153. Software Glitch or Russian Hackers? Election Problems Draw Little Scrutiny by Nicole Perlroth, Michael Wines and Matthew Rosenberg, The New York Times, September 1, 2017
  154. Mueller examining Trump's draft letter firing FBI Director Comey by Rosalind S. Helderman, Carol D. Leonnig and Ashley Parker, The Washington Post, September 1, 2017
  155. Fake Russian Facebook Accounts Bought $100,000 in Political Ads by Scott Shane and Vindu Goel, The New York Times, September 6, 2017
  156. The Fake Americans Russia Created to Influence the Election by Scott Shane, The New York Times, September 7, 2017
  157. Facebook Wins, Democracy Loses by Siva Vaidhyanathan, The New York Times, September 8, 2017
  158. Russia's Fake Americans by The Editorial Board, The New York Times, September 8, 2017
  159. Russia Sought A Broad Reset With Trump, Secret Document Shows by John Hudson,, BuzzFeed News, September 12, 2017
  160. Mueller Probe Has 'Red-Hot' Focus on Social Media, Officials Say by Chris Strohm, Bloomberg, September 13, 2017
  161. Flynn Promoted Nuclear-Plant Project While in White House by Christopher S. Stewart, Rob Barry and Shane Harris, The Washington Post, September 13, 2017
  162. RT, Sputnik and Russia's New Theory of War: How the Kremlin built one of the most powerful information weapons of the 21st century - and why it may be impossible to stop by Jim Rutenberg, The New York Times, September 13, 2017
  163. Trump Humiliated Jeff Sessions After Mueller Appointment by Michael S. Schmidt and Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, September 14, 2017
  164. Trump Advisers Secretly Met With Jordan's King While One Was Pushing A Huge Nuclear Power Deal by Jason Leopold, Chris McDaniel, and Anthony Cormier, BuzzFeed, September 15, 2017
  165. Trump Lawyers Clash Over How Much to Cooperate With Russia Inquiry by Peter Baker and Kenneth P. Vogel, The New York Times, September 17, 2017
  166. With a Picked Lock and a Threatened Indictment, Mueller's Inquiry Sets a Tone by Sharon LaFraniere, Matt Apuzzo and Adam Goldman, The New York Times, September 18, 2017
  167. Mueller casts broad net in requesting extensive records from Trump White House by Carol D. Leonnig and Rosalind S. Helderman, The Washington Post, September 20, 2017
  168. Mueller Seeks White House Documents Related to Trump's Actions as President by Michael Schmidt, The New York Times, September 20, 2017
  169. Exclusive: Russians Appear to Use Facebook to Push Trump Rallies in 17 U.S. Cities by Ben Collins, Gideon Resnick, Kevin Poulsen, and Spencer Ackerman, The Daily Beast, September 20. 2017
  170. Manafort offered to give Russian billionaire 'private briefings' on 2016 campaign by Tom Hamburger, Rosalind S. Helderman, Carol D. Leonnig and Adam Entous, The Washington Post, September 20, 2017
  171. "How do we use [this] to get whole?" The most intriguing new Paul Manafort-Russia email by Aaron Blake, The Washington Post, September 20, 2017
  172. 'How do we use [this] to get whole?': The most intriguing new Paul Manafort-Russia email by Aaron Blake, The Washington Post, September 20, 2017
  173. Facebook to Turn Over Russian-Linked Ads to Congress by Scott Shane and Mike Isaac, The New York Times, September 21, 2017
  174. German Election Mystery: Why No Russian Meddling? by Michael Schwirtz, The New York Times, September 21, 2017
  175. Russian operatives used Facebook ads to exploit America's racial and religious divisions by Adam Entous, Craig Timberg and Elizabeth Dwoskin, The Washington Post, September 25, 2017
  176. Russian-funded Facebook ads backed Stein, Sanders and Trump: At least one touted Jill Stein, the Green Party candidate, who Clinton says "may well have thrown the election to Trump." by Josh Dawsey, Politico, September 26, 2017
  177. Twitter, With Accounts Linked to Russia, to Face Congress Over Role in Election by Daisuke Wakabayashi and Scott Shane, The New York Times, September 27, 2017
  178. Exclusive: Russians Impersonated Real American Muslims to Stir Chaos on Facebook and Instagram by Ben Collins, Kevin Poulsen, and Spencer Ackerman, The Daily Beast, September 27, 2017
  179. Former DHS chief feared catastrophic attack on election systems by Mark Rockwell, FCW, September 27, 2017
  180. DHS Chief: We'll Do Better Next Time On Election Meddling by Joseph Marks, Nextgov, September 27, 2017
  181. Twitter, With Accounts Linked to Russia, to Face Congress Over Role in Election by Daisuke Wakabayashi and Scott Shane, The New York Times, September 27, 2017
  182. Exclusive: Russians Impersonated Real American Muslims to Stir Chaos on Facebook and Instagram: Kremlin trolls stole the identity of an authentic U.S. Muslim organization —first to smear John McCain and Hillary Clinton, then to sing her praises by Ben Collins, Kevin Poulsen, and Spencer Ackerman, The Daily Beast, September 27, 2017mueller seek
  183. Oxford study: Fake news rife on Twitter during election week: More than 7 million tweets studied by Donie O'Sullivan, KSAT, September 28, 2017
  184. Twitter finds 201 accounts tied to Russian agents who posted on Facebook by Elizabeth Dwoskin, Adam Entous and Karoun Demirjian, The Washington Post, September 28, 2017
  185. Junk news and Russian misinformation flooded Twitter during the 2016 election: The new study, from researchers at Oxford, comes as Twitter prepares to brief Congress by Tony Romm and Rani Molla, Recode, September 28, 2017
  186. Google Prepares to Brief Congress on Its Role in Election by Daisuke Wakabayashi, The New York Times, September 29, 2017
  187. Facebook's Russia-Linked Ads Came in Many Disguises by Mike Isaac and Scott Shane, The New York Times, October 2, 2017
  188. More than 60\% of Singapore-listed companies score well on cyber security: Study by Ann Williams, The Straits Times, October 2, 2017
  189. Trump's company had more contact with Russia during campaign, according to documents turned over to investigators by Tom Hamburger, Rosalind S. Helderman and Adam Entous, The New York Times, October 2, 2017
  190. Facebook Estimates 10 Million Users Saw Russian-Backed Ads by Georgia Wells and Natalie Andrews, The Washington Post, October 2, 2017
  191. Russians took a page from corporate America by using Facebook tool to ID and influence voters by Elizabeth Dwoskin, Craig Timberg and Adam Entous, The Washington Post, October 2, 2017
  192. Equifax's Ex-CEO to Outline Series of Mishaps That Led to Hack by AnnaMaria Andriotis and Michael Rapoport, The Wall Street Journal, October 2, 2017
  193. Scrutiny Over Fake Accounts Turns From Facebook to Twitter: Users can remain anonymous, fueling legions of automated accounts, or bots, deployed to mislead and manipulate by Georgia Wells and Robert McMillan, The Wall Street Journal, Octobner 2, 2017
  194. Our best hope against nuclear war by David Ignatious, The Washington Post, October 3, 2017
  195. Senators expected to largely endorse intel report on Russian meddling, sound alarm about next election by Karoun Demirjian and Greg Miller, The Washington Post, October 3, 2017
  196. Senate Intelligence Heads Warn That Russian Election Meddling Continues by Nicholas Fandos, The New York Times, October 4, 2017
  197. Exclusive: Mueller's team met with Russia dossier author by Evan Perez, Shimon Prokupecz and Pamela Brown, CNN, October 5, 2017
  198. Seeing so much of the present through Watergate makes it harder to see the future by J. Peter Scoblic, The Washington Post, October 6, 2017
  199. Hoping to Have Trump Cleared, Legal Team Eases Resistance to Inquiry by Matt Apuzzo and Michael S. Schmidt, The New York Times, October 7, 2017
  200. Emails Shed Light on Trump Tower Meeting: Russian lawyer has said she didn’t have damaging information about Hillary Clinton by Rebecca Ballhaus, The Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2017
  201. The notorious Kremlin-linked 'troll farm' and the Russians trying to take it down by David Filipov, The Washington Post, October 8, 2017
  202. Is Facebook spinning out of control over Russian revelations? by Hannah Kuchler, FT, October 9, 2017
  203. Google uncovers Russian-bought ads on YouTube, Gmail and other platforms by Elizabeth Dwoskin, Adam Entous and Craig Timberg, The Washington Post, October 9, 2017
  204. Newly disclosed email sheds light on Trump Jr. meeting with Russian lawyer by Rosalind S. Helderman, The Washington Post, October 9, 2017
  205. Russian operatives used Twitter and Facebook to target veterans and military personnel, study says by Craig Timberg, The Washington Post, October 9, 2017
  206. How Russia Harvested American Rage to Reshape U.S. Politics by Nicholas Confessore and Daisuke Wakabayashi, The New York Times, October 9, 2017
  207. A Law is Expiring That Allows Ethical Hackers to Help Protect U.S. Elections by Joseph Marks, Defense One, October 11, 2017
  208. At the Intersection of Russia Probe and Social Media: Donald Trump's Digital Chief by Rebecca Ballhaus and Natalie Andrews, The Wall Street Journal, October 13, 2017
  209. Wary of Hackers, States Move to Upgrade Voting Systems By Michael Wines, The New York Times, October 14, 2017
  210. An ex St. Petersburg 'troll' speaks out Russian independent TV network interviews former troll at the Internet Research Agency by Meduza, October 15, 2017
  211. Manafort Had $60 Million Relationship With a Russian Oligarch by Aggelos Petropoulos and Richard Engel, NBC News, October 15, 2017
  212. Russian troll factory paid US activists to help fund protests during election by Shaun Walker, October 17, 2017
  213. CIA director distorts intelligence community's findings on Russian interference by Greg Miller, The Washington Post, October 19, 2017
  214. Hopes Dim for Congressional Russia Inquiries as Parties Clash by Nicholas Fandos, The New York Times, October 22, 2017
  215. How Russians Attempted To Use Instagram To Influence Native Americans by Ryan C. Brooks, BuzzFeed, October 23, 2017
  216. Exclusive: Russian Propaganda Traced Back to Staten Island, New York by Katie Zavadski, Ben Collins, Kevin Poulsen, and Spencer Ackerman, The Daily Beast, October 23, 2017
  217. Russia's Favored Outlet Is an Online News Giant. YouTube Helped. by Daisuke Wakabayashi and Nicholas Confessore, The New York Times, October 23, 2017
  218. U.K. Lawmakers Ask Facebook About Russian Influence in Brexit Vote by David D. Kirkpatrick, The New York Times, October 24, 2017
  219. Fractures emerging on Senate panel's Russia probe By Jordain Carney, The Hill, October 27, 2017
  220. Scrutiny mounts for Trump dig operation By Morgan Chalfant, The Hill, October 27, 2017
  221. Talking Points Brought to Trump Tower Meeting Were Shared With Kremlin By Sharon LaFraniere and Andrew E. Kramer, The New York Times, October 27, 2017
  222. Russian-Backed Facebook Accounts Organized Events on All Sides of Polarizing Issues: They publicized or financed at least 60 events before and after the 2016 election by Deepa Seetharaman, The Walll Street Journal, October 30, 2017
  223. Manafort, former business partner indicted on money laundering, tax charges in connection with special counsel probe by Rosalind S. Helderman and Matt Zapotosky, The Washington Post, October 30, 2017
  224. Russian Influence Reached 126 Million Through Facebook Alone by Mike Isaac and Daisuke Wakabayashi, October 30, 2017
  225. Former Trump Aides Charged as Prosecutors Reveal New Campaign Ties With Russia by Matt Apuzzo, Adam Goldman, Michael S. Schmidt and Matthew Rosenberg, The New York Times, October 30, 2017
  226. Mueller's First Indictments Send a Message to Trump by Peter Baker, The New York Times, October 30, 2017
  227. Trump Campaign Got Early Word Russia Had Democrats' Emails by Scott Shane, The New York Times, October 30, 2017
  228. Putin, exposed, may become more dangerous by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, October 31, 2017
  229. Disclosure of Papadopoulos's Email Hunt Sheds Light on Quest for Clinton 'Dirt by Scott Shane, The Wall Street Journal, November 1, 2017
  230. Russian ads, now publicly released, show sophistication of influence campaign by Craig Timberg, Elizabeth Dwoskin, Adam Entous and Karoun Demirjian, the New York Times, November 1, 2017
  231. U.S. Prosecutors Consider Charging Russian Officials in DNC Hacking Case: At least six Russian government officials are identified as part of ongoing investigation by Aruna Viswanatha and Del Quentin Wilber, The Wall Street Journal, November 2, 2017
  232. Seen any of these before? You may have been targeted by Russian ads on Facebook by Donie O'Sullivan CNN, November 2, 2017
  233. Trump and Sessions Denied Knowing About Russian Contacts. Records Suggest Otherwise. by Michael S. Schmidt, Matt Apuzzo and Scott Shane, The New York Times, November 2, 2017
  234. U.S. Prosecutors Consider Charging Russian Officials in DNC Hacking Case by Aruna Viswanatha and Del Quentin Wilber, The Wall Street Journal, November 2, 2017
  235. Facebook Says It's Policing Fake Accounts. But They're Still Easy to Spot. by Scott Shane and Mike Isaac, The New York Times, November 2, 2017
  236. Why Russia's Facebook ad campaign wasn't such a success by Patrick Ruffini, The Washington Post, November 3, 2017
  237. Is there more than meets the eye with the professor at the center of the Trump-Russia probe? Or less? By Griff Witte and Karla Adam, The Washington Post, November 4, 2017
  238. At least nine people in Trump's orbit had contact with Russians during campaign and transition by Rosalind S. Helderman, Tom Hamburger and Carol D. Leonnig, The Washington Post, November 5, 2017
  239. Rick Gates, once the man 'in the corner,' is now a central figure in Mueller investigation by Michael Kranish and Tom Hamburger, The Washington Post, November 5, 2017
  240. Trump adviser sent email describing 'private conversation' with Russian official by Rosalind S. Helderman, Matt Zapotosky and Karoun Demirjian, The Washington Post, November 6, 2017
  241. Russian Twitter Support for Trump Began Right After He Started Campaign by Mark Maremont and Rob Barry, The Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2017
  242. Exclusive: Russia Activated Twitter Sleeper Cells for 2016 Election Day Blitz: In its final, climactic push for Donald Trump, the Kremlin's troll army enlisted new members: semi-dormant propaganda accounts created as far back as 2009. by Kevin Poulson, The Daily Beast, November 11, 2017
  243. AP EXCLUSIVE: Russia Twitter Trolls Deflected Trump Bad News by Ryan Nakashima and Barbara Ortutay, Associated Press, November 9, 2017
  244. The Lawfare Podcast: Andrei Soldatov on Russian Intel Ops and Surveillance by Alina Polyakova, November 12, 2017
  245. Microsoft's Smith adds 'cyber Red Cross' to his 'digital Geneva Convention' call by Shaun Waterman, Cyberscoop, November 10, 2017
  246. A London Meeting of an Unlikely Group: How a Trump Adviser Came to Learn of Clinton 'Dirt' by Sharon LaFraniere, David D. Kirkpatrick, Andrew Higgins and Michael Schwirtz, The New York Times, November 10, 2017
  247. Keith Schiller, Trump's Ex-Bodyguard, Says He Turned Down Offer of Women in Moscow by Adam Goldman and Nicholas Fandos, The New York Times, November 10, 2017
  248. Mueller Probes Flynn's Role in Alleged Plan to Deliver Cleric to Turkey by James V. Grimaldi, Shane Harris and Aruna Viswanatha, The Wall Street Journal, November 10, 2017
  249. The Secret Correspondence Between Donald Trump Jr. and WikiLeaks by Julia Ioffe, The Atlantic, November 13, 2017
  250. Donald Trump Jr. Communicated With WikiLeaks During Campaign by Michael S. Schmidt and Nicholas Fandos, The New York Times, November 13, 2017
  251. Sessions says he 'always told the truth' in describing Russia contacts by Matt Zapotosky and Sari Horwitz, The Washington Post, November 13, 2017
  252. Sessions again changes his account of what he knew about Trump campaign's dealings with Russians by Matt Zapotosky and Sari Horwitz, The Washington Post, November14, 2017
  253. Kushner Failed to Provide Russia Documents, Senate Panel Found by Michael S. Schmidt, The New York Times, November 16, 2017
  254. The curious journey of Carter Page, the former Trump adviser who can't stay out of the spotlight by Dan Zak, The Washington Post, November 16, 2017
  255. The Russia investigation's spectacular accumulation of lies by Michael Gerson, The Washington Post, November 16,2017

Published Summaries and Timelines

  1. Here's what we know so far about Team Trump's ties to Russian interests by Bonnie Berkowitz, Denise Lu and Julie Vitkovskaya, The Washington Post, March 31, 2017, updated regularly.
  2. A guide to the five major investigations of the Trump campaign's possible ties to Russia By Kevin Uhrmacher and Kim Soffen, The Washington Post, June 14, 2017
  3. The Post's new findings in Russia's bold campaign to influence the U.S. election by Julie Vitkovskaya, Samuel Granados and John Muyskens, The New York Times, June 23, 2017
  4. Conspiracy or Coincidence? A Timeline Open to Interpretation by Peter Baker, The New York Times, July 12, 2017
  5. The 'dossier' and the uranium deal: A guide to the latest allegations by Glenn Kessler, The Washington Post, October 29, 2017
  6. How We Got Here: A Timeline of Events Leading Up to the Charges by Mikayla Bouchard, The New York Times, October 30, 2017
  7. 2016 Under Scrutiny: A Timeline Of Russia Connections, NPR, October 31, 2017
  8. All the known times the Trump campaign met with Russians by Meg Kelly, The Washington Post, November 13, 2017
  9. The clear timeline suggesting Donald Trump Jr. coordinated with WikiLeaks by Aaron Blake, The Washington Post, November 14, 2017
  10. The definitive Trump-Russia timeline of events: Follow our timeline of events on the Trump administration's ties to Russia. by Matthew Nussbaum, POLITICO, March 3, 2017, Updated November 13, 2017

Analytical Reports

  1. Election Security Is a Matter of National Security, by David Dill, Verified Voting Blog, December 2, 2016
  2. Russia May Be Done with the U.S. Election, But We Aren't Done With Them, by Susan Hennessey and Matt Tait, Lawfare Institute, December 9, 2016
  3. The Russians Read our Cold War Playbook, by James M. Ludes, War on the Rocks, November 8, 2016
  4. Trump's Win Signals Open Season for Russia's Political Hackers, by Andy Greenberg, Wired, November 9, 2016.
  5. After Attributing a Cyberattack to Russia, the Most Likely Response Is NonCyber, by Adam Segal, Council on Foreign Relations, October 10, 2016
  6. How Russia Pulled Off the Biggest Election Hack in U.S. History, by Thomas Rid, Esquire Magazine, October 20, 2016
  7. International Law and the US Response to Russian Election Interference, by Ryan Goodman, Just Security, January 5, 2017
  8. Why did Obama dawdle on Russia's hacking?, by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, January 12, 2017
  9. TRUMP, PUTIN, AND THE NEW COLD WAR: What lay behind Russia's interference in the 2016 election - and what lies ahead, by Evan Osnos, David Remnick, and Joshua Yaffa, The New Yorker, March 3, 2017
  10. Trump's new Russia expert wrote a psychological profile of Vladimir Putin - and it should scare Trump Book Review by Carlos Lozada of Mr. Putin: Operative in the Kremlin by Fiona Hill and Clifford G. Gaddy, The Washington Post, March 31, 2017
  11. Is America a Failing State? by David Rothkopf, Foreign Policy, May 10, 2017
  12. Inside Russia's Social Media War on America by Massimo Calibresi, Time Magazine, May 18, 2017
    This article describes the tools, tactics and procedures (TTPs) that Russian agents use in their information war against global democracy.

    Compare the following quotes, particularly the last one, to the public statements of Andrey Krutskikh cited by David Ignatius in News Article #52.

    In May 2016, a Russian military intelligence officer bragged to a colleague that his organization, known as the GRU, was getting ready to pay Clinton back for what President Vladimir Putin believed was an influence operation she had run against him five years earlier as Secretary of State. The GRU, he said, was going to cause chaos in the upcoming U.S. election. What the officer didn't know, senior intelligence officials tell TIME, was that U.S. spies were listening.

    After his re-election the following year (2012), Putin dispatched his newly installed head of military intelligence, Igor Sergun, to begin repurposing cyberweapons previously used for psychological operations in war zones for use in electioneering. Russian intelligence agencies funded "troll farms," botnet spamming operations and fake news outlets as part of an expanding focus on psychological operations in cyberspace. It turns out Putin had outside help.

    One particularly talented Russian programmer who had worked with social media researchers in the U.S. for 10 years had returned to Moscow and brought with him a trove of algorithms that could be used in influence operations. He was promptly hired by those working for Russian intelligence services, senior intelligence officials tell TIME.

  13. Hillary Clinton Was the First Casualty in the New Information Wars by Alexis C. Madrigal, The Atlantic, May 31, 2017.
    The following video, produced by The Atlantic, was embedded in the above article.

  14. A Disabled Executive: The Special Counsel Investigation and Presidential Immunities by Bob Bauer, Lawfare Institute, June 19 2017
  15. The Russians Were Involved. But It Wasn't About Collusion, by Daniel Hoffman, The New York Times, july 28, 2017
  16. A Guide to Russia's High Tech Tool Box for Subverting US Democracy by Garret M. Graff, WIRED Magazine, August 13, 2017
    This article opens with a description of the Russian Grand Strategy based on active measures as described in General Gerasimov's characterization of hybrid war, which harks back to the Tsarist era.
  17. Shatter the House of Mirrors: A Conference Report on Russian Influence Operations by James M. Ludes and Mark R. Jacobson, a Pell Center Report, October 2017
  18. Will Donald Trump Destroy the Presidency?: He disdains the rule of law. He's trampling norms of presidential behavior. And he's bringing vital institutions down with him by Jack Goldsmith, The Atlantic, October, 2017
  19. All Elections are Hackable: Scalable Lessons from Secure I-Voting and Global Election Hacks by Liisa Past, European Cybersecurity Journal, Volum 3, Issue 3, 2017
  20. Russia is pushing to control cyberspace. We should all be worried. by David Ignatius, The Washington Post, October 24, 2017
  21. What Reality TV Teaches Us About Russia's Influence Campaign, by Farhad Manjoo, The New York Times, November 8, 2017
  22. She Warned of 'Peer-to-Peer Misinformation.' Congress Listened by Sheera Frenkel, The New York Times, November 12, 2017

Published US Government Reports

Relevant Legal Articles

General Gerasimov's Views on Hybrid War

Voting-Related Resources

Predicting the Future


John Savage