Here is a greatly simplified representation of how our brains generate visual perceptions:

Light enters the eye and is focused a thin membrane called the retina. The retina is crammed with millions of receptors (called rods and cones) that are stimulated when stuck by photons of light. This collective stimulation is transmited as an electric signal down the optic track to sever regions of the brain which are responsible for procesing the information from the receptors and turning into a visual perception.

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